Friday, March 27, 2009

Sufism and Sufi Literature reconciling the world

Sufism and Sufi Literature

Islamic Literature Lecture Notes

Prof.Dr. Abdul Hadi at the University of Paramadina

Sufism and Poetry

Sufism is a form of spirituality or spiritual path in Islam. As a form of spirituality or spiritual teachings, Sufism began to appear in the history of Islam in the early 2nd century AH or 8 M. People who practice called Sufi mysticism. Therefore, in English, also called sufism mysticism (Sufism). Due to close and pegalaman kesufian similarities between the mystical nature of aesthetic experience of artists, not surprising that since the beginning has been a lot of Sufi involved in literary activities, especially poetry. This is because the poem is a symbolic narrative, which is different from the delivery of science and philosophy of language.

Important role in the lives of Sufi poetry is rooted in the same ceremony `(audition). Literally the same word 'means listening to poetry and music together. In its development as' incarnated as a concert accompanied by spiritual music-arian dance, singing and poetry readings. Through music and poetry read by their feelings begelora, Through all their religious experience increases, so the religious experiences associated with something spiritual and transcendental nature, and spiritual things can only be perceived intuitively (dharuri) and feelings.

Some scholars said that the word Sufi comes than the word 'safi' which in Arabic means pure or clean. It is the Sufi spiritual path begins with the purification (tadhkiya `al-nafs) and purification heart (tadhkiya` al-qalb). Destination purification and heart are intended to be more closer to God. In addition, the Sufi spiritual path taken with the intention that a salik (facer spiritual path) is to recognize them and nature of human Wordpress is a spiritual human beings, not merely kejasmanisan and social creatures.

The road begins with Sufism penngendalian low desires (lust anger and lust lawamah) and purification of heart and mind than the memory of that other than God. When the soul, namely one's heart and mind have been completely filled with the memory of the vision of the One heart will experience enlightenment. The emergence of enlightenment in one's heart will lead to a clear vision and clear of all things, and he can see the essence behind the forms of birth that many of the world's creation.

Grounded in the reality of Sufism is a path Wordpress purification scholars argue that the word Sufism or the Sufi origin than safi said, which in Arabic means pure or clean. Some other scholars say that the word Sufi comes from suf, the fleece. In the early development sememangnya Sufis used to wear robes of coarse wool. Fleece robe is a symbol of modesty (faqr), sincerity and sacrifice modesty, sincerity and sacrifice are the attitudes of the most important people in Sufism in addition to resignation and penchant for other good deeds.

Zuhudiyyah groups like the Sufis do not like the symptoms of materialism and excessive luxury. Materialism and luxury lifestyle can distance themselves rather than God and the way the truth of religion. Use of fleece robe also has links with the sacrifice (qurb), because it is common khewan made sacrificial lambs. Sacrificed in question here is to devote themselves fully in the way of religion.

According to the Sufis is the only way to save the people rather than the disaster and the collapse of moral decline is to draw closer to God, mempertingkatkan attitude of resignation and propagate good deeds. Teachings of the Sufis is clearly teaching selari with al-Qur `an. In drawing nearer to God that the early Sufis began to instill an attitude zuhud and resignation, reproduce religious charities and social virtues.

Sufism was originally a religious social movement modest. But then grew into a kind of doctrine and philosophy of life itself. The Sufis are not satisfied with the doctrine of the heart attitude and resignation zuhud taught the early Sufis. In the course of their time and developed the doctrine of a higher spirituality called the doctrine of divine love. According to them only love ( `ishq wa mahbbah) who can bring someone closer to his Lord, because God's nature is the ultimate Compassionate and Merciful (al-Rahman and al-uterus). According to their teachings are the essence of all religions is Love. In Islamic doctrine of love is closely related to the doctrine of Tawheed, the belief that God Wordpress one.

and the only road that can bring a person familiar with the nature of the teachings of Tawhid, which is testimony Wordpress God is one.

Love has a broad meaning. Of these is a deep faith and strong, observance of religious orders with sense of freedom, a tendency to throw all that but Him and heart and mind filled with memories only fully to God Almighty Mahabbah word itself comes from the word hubb, the jars filled with water so there is no place else to another. In true love there is no other place in the heart and mind of a lover than a place for Him, the One ..

Love is often interpreted method or intuitive experience of nature, because in might have knowledge of a loved one is not only the use of reason and the mind, but also the heart of vision. Sight liver also called intuition According to the Sufis nature of most real God is Merciful (al-rahman) and the Most Merciful (al-uterus). These two properties are the same as Love. Because the real and essential nature is divine Love is the way to approach the Lord is the path of Love According to the Sufi principle of creation of the world also is Love and all things shall be governed by his principles beradasarkan Love. Love is the origin of human kewujudan on earth.

What is Sufism, as there is a spiritual path or spiritual knowledge. In his book Tasawwuf Madkhal ilm al-Islam (1985) Abu al-Wafa al-`Taftazani states:

Sufism is the spiritual path in Islam with the aim of moral mempertingkatkan. The meaning moral here is moral or courtesy between a servant to his Lord, the moral of a person with himself and the moral of a person with another person or a fellow human being ". Moral here means good deeds and responsible, and based on the teachings of monotheism and morality when it comes it will be good relations between man and God, himself and another man.

Tauhid itself as the main teachings of Islam contains a moral or ethical aspects. As the moral basis of Tawheed Wordpress charitable deed teaches that a person must be accountable not only to themselves and society, but especially to be accountable to God. Tawhid is expressed in the form of shar `i law, or Shari'a religious. Shari'a Intipati four, namely:

1 Aqidah or principle of faith;

2; Worship

3 Mua `amalah (charitable deeds);

4 Akhlaq.

In Sufism purification process begins with the corrected belief, submission, and shall perform the Sunnah of worship, including recitation, wirid, fasting isnin Thursday, reproduce all the charity `amalah and jariyah, and improve akhlaq.Dalam book Muqadimah (15th century) Ibn Khaldhun says :

Science Sufism including a branch of Islamic sciences in the newly developed after the Islamic sciences others. Begins its origins than the first generation of Muslims in the days of Prophet Baginda, ie instead of the Companions, Tabi `in and the generation after them. At first he was a effort to

concentrated in worship, surrender completely to God, rather than avoidance of self-world charm and beyond materialism, penjauhan away from luxury, wealth and rank mubasir, zuhud.

engage in meditation and worship favorite.

Sufi teachings are based on al-Qur `an and Sunnah. Nasiruddin al-Tusi in his book Kitab al-Luma `said that the Sufis specifically concerned with moral development. This is in accordance with the suggestion the Prophet and his companions. The road to God begins with spiritual exercises and then gradually through the various phases that are recognized by the term stations (ratings spirituality) and ahwal (mental state), and ended denan makrifat and mortal '(mystical union) with the Haqq.

What is called the Station is spiritual stages are achieved after one practice their religion and a certain spiritual exercises. Examples of the Station is repentance, zuhud, wara `(sanctify yourself), live humble (faqr), patient willing (pleasure), resignation and so forth. About ahwal (plural words than that) is the circumstances the soul which appeared in the conduct of worship and purification road .. In the circumstances the soul or spirit that is achieved muraqabah (penumpuan attention to the One alone), qarib (kehampiran), `ishq, fear, hope, uns (near), serene, musyahadah (full testimony Wordpress him one), haqq al-yaqin (believing in) and so on.

According to Nua `ym Abu al-Isfahani in the Book Hilyat al-` Awliya (Garnishes The Guardian) Sufi experts included in the class of people who guard against the evils of materialism and discernment based on beliefs about the truth of divine revelation. They seek not to neglect religious duty. They can operate in the field of commerce and social, but it did not cause he failed to remember (dhikr) of Allah and the hang of the lessons taught in his holy book.

Indeed at the beginning of Sufism is a discipline of science is not separate from the Islamic sciences such other fiqah science and science kalam. New separation occurs in the 3rd century AH or the 9th century AD as a result of the development of specialization (specialization) a more detailed knowledge. Science fiqah then only discusses the formal rules of religion, including worship and muamalahnya. Science deals only with theology or divinity tteologi problems and the basics of rational belief in God. While the science of Sufism membahaskan spiritual and morality issues, including metaphysics, aesthetics, psychology and the roads get closer to God spiritually. With that Sufism discuss issues regarding the nature of religious teachings and the ways the hang of and ways to achieve it.

Based on the facts in the Abu al-Wafa al-`Taftasani formulate Wordpress Sufism has five main features: (1) Mysticism mempertingkatkan moral aims through the resignation and love.; (2). Makrifat There is more objective and mystical union with the One ; (3) The Sufi emphasis intuitive method, namely the love and makrifat, in attaining the highest knowledge or knowledge of the highest nature; (4). give priority to peace and tranquility of the heart through faith in God, and thus achieved satisfaction, pleasure and happiness ; (5) The Sufis commonly use imagery or symbols in the expression of ideas and experience their spirituality. Therefore, developing literature in the Sufi tradition, especially poetry, religious and dance muzik ..

Development and Figures

Sufi poetry rested attention to the Eternal or the Eternal, and the longing for presence of the One. Longing and patience waiting for the presence of Saru in the heart of vision is one of the important themes of the work of Sufi poets. For example, as seen in the poem Abdul Samad al-Raghasi (d. 816 AD) the following:

One day a cloud of thy protecting me

Flashes of light glaring eyes, but hide the rain again

And in the darkness I saw no road, so I was desperate

But the water did not come down, so I water thy dahagakan

Wordpress remember there must be distinction between poetry zuhudiyyah with Sufi poetry. If the group likes to talk about zuhudiyyah punishment on the Day of the Underworld, the case heaven and hell, the Sufis are not so concerned about these issues. According to the Sufi love God is not to expect entry into heaven or be free instead of hell. Wordpress also must be remembered though the Sufis refused to be bound to the world and do not like materialism, but merekja love the beauty of humanity and the world, because of natural events and human rather than a manifestation of his creativity and also a manifestation of love and beauty than his. View of the Sufis is clearly more optimistic than the view zuhudiyyah groups. Not a few of them operate in the areas of society and education.

Sufis often picking verses of al-Qur `an," Everywhere you look will show the face of God "or" God verses lies in the universe and in human beings ". The definition of 'paragraph' here is the signs of his amazing, or signs of greatness and beauty of his knowledge. With the phenomena of life in the world can be used to grow the material reflection of love to God. Sufis looked Wordpress gift from God to man is not innumerable, but only a few people who remember to be grateful for God-given favor.

Sufi poems are sometimes seen as a conversation with God personally poet, which shows that the theme of intimacy with the One is an important theme in Sufi poetry. For example appears in the poem Junaid al-Baghdadi the following:

Now I know, God - Who

Dwells in my heart

In rahsia, far from the world

Tongue talking with his kupuja

Through a road

We approached the meeting

Apart from Him

Heavy whipping seksa the soul

Although you hide your face

Far from my eyes

I guess the love of your presence

Intimate in my heart

In this terrible disaster

I regret not tearing the soul of seksa

Only you have the spouse of God

Not a gift or thy bounteous hand

If the whole world You give me

Or heaven as a reward

I pray that all my wealth

Not valuable than seeing your face

In the Sufi view of the human heart the deepest, called sirr, there is a place where people can have conversations with Lord rahsia. Purification of the heart than the memory of someone other than God, and fulfillment with the memory of God, is the proper way to get the heart into a conversation. Sometimes Sufi poetry, by maintaining the theme of love for God and longing for Him, describes the stages of their spirituality through. Ibn `Ata example illustrates the use of remembrance, which is an important one than the Sufi practice, to nourish the memory and longing for God. The proliferation of longing and memory to the One gives an opportunity for heart to purify themselves. If the liver has been purified the heart will likely be a conversation between a person with rahsia the Most Hidden. In his poem "Remembrance": Ibn `Ata writing, which meant:

Variety of remembrance, filled with love

And longing revenge, he published his memory to

Because the power of remembrance, desire becomes weak

And can be controlled by it

The soul had a deep influence, grief away

A good appetite so can spread

Conscious or not, remembrance can be rolled up

Passions and can seclude beraikannya

And delete it, then

Restoring power heart and mind vision

Thus transformed crown rising above his head

Remembrance is a way to know Him

Through a clear vision of the heart

Remembrance grow confidence in ourselves

Until his presence felt in the heart

And the veil that separates the entrance us with his

In the 10th century Ja `far al-Eternity (d. 939 AD) to collect Sufi poetry Arabic since the 8th century, so 10th century AD In his triumph in antologinya gather thousands of poems by the Sufi poet 130. Unfortunately the original book naskhah Ja `far al-Eternity are gone and have not found that today. Only a small partial poems can be found in the book naskhah other Sufi authors. A large number of Sufi poet her poems compiled by Ja `far al-Eternity shows that the development of Sufi literature is rampant since the 8th century so that in later centuries. Among the poems of the Sufi of the 8th century, so 11th century that we can read that now is the work of Rabi `ah al-Adawiyah, Dhu al-Nun al-Misri, Sumnun ibn Hasan Basri, Bayazid al-Bistami, Saqiq al-Balkhi, Sari al-Saqati, Junaid al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr al-Shibli, Abu al-Hasan al-Nuri, Mansur al-Hallaj, Niffari, Abu al-Qasim al-Sayyani, Ahmad al-Ghazali and others - other.

Sufi Arabic literature reached the peak of its development in the 12th century and 13th with the emergence of prolific authors and leading thinkers such as Sufism Ibn `Arabi, Sustari, Sadruddin al-Qunyawi, Ibn` Ata al-Sakandari god, Ibn al-Farid, Ibn Tufayl , Qushairy, Imam al-Ghazali, Najamuddin Dayah and others. At that time, Sufism was also developed with the greater part of the fertile lands of Islam. In the centuries it grew fertile Sufi literary development with the emergence of Sufi writers such prominent Parsi Sana `i, Abu Sa` id al-Khayr, Khwaja Abdullah Ansari, Baba Kuhi, Baba Tahir, Fariduddin `Attar, Ruzbihan Baqli, Jalaluddin Rumi , Nizami al-Ganjawi, Fakhrudin `Iraqi, Nasir Khusraw, Sa` di, Suhrawardi, Mahmud al-Shabistari, Maghribi, Jami, Karim al-Jili and others.

In the 16th century, so 19th century Sufi literature flourished in Turkey, North Africa, the small Indian subcontinent (including Pakistan now) and in the archipelago. Literary figures of Sufi archipelago, especially those written in Java language and the Malays, is Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsudin Sumatrani, Abdul Jamal, Fansuri Hasan, Nur al-Din al-Raniri, Singkel Abdul Rauf, Raja Ali Haji, Sunan Bonang, Sunan Kalijaga, Sunan Gunungjati , Ki Ageng Selo, Sunan Stage, Yasadipura, Ranggawarsita, K. H. Hasan Mustafa and others.

Book Reading:

Abdul Hadi W. M. Sufi Literature: An Anthology. Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 1985.

Fariduddin al-`Attar. Muslim Saints and Mystics (Episodes from the Thadkira al-`Awliya).

Translated by A. J. Artbery. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979.

S. H. Nadeem. A Critical Appreciation of Arabic Mystical Poetry. Lahore: Islamic Book

Servuce, 1979.

Annemarie Schimmel. As Through as Veil: Mystical Poetry in Islam. New York:

Columbia University Press, 1982.

Abu al-Wafa 'al-Taftazani. Madhkal ila ahl al-Tasawwuf al-Islam. Cairo: Dar al -

Tsaqafah li al-Nasyr wa al-Tawzi, 1983. (Indonesian edition: Sufi Of Age

To Age. Trans. A. Rofi `` Ottomans. Bandung: Pustaka, 1985.

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